Calhoun County was formed in 1855, but it took until 1856 for Lake City to be selected as the county seat. A $1,100 building was constructed to serve as the first courthouse in 1856.
In 1877 the county seat moved to Rockwell City and a new courthouse was built for just over $2,000. This second courthouse was short lived as a fire destroyed it in 1884. Until a new one was built, a hotel and a building in town were rented for $1 a day to serve as the temporary courthouse.
A third courthouse was built on a new location in 1886, but was too small for the county. The fourth courthouse was completed in 1914 for a cost of $116,200 and the former courthouse was sold to a Catholic Church. This fourth courthouse serves Calhoun County today. The outside walls are limestone and the building has a red roof made of clay tiles. The architectural style of this three story building is Neo-Classical Revival.