West Union was chosen to be the county seat of Fayette County even though the southern part of the county opposed the construction of a courthouse there. Fayette offered to build a courthouse for free if the seat were moved to that location. West Union and the county came up with $8,000 in order to construct a 40 by 60 foot brick building.
The citizens still would not agree to build a jail so prisoners were held in a room of the courthouse. In 1872, a prisoner knocked out a stovepipe and used matches to enlarge a hole. He then knocked out a few extra bricks and escaped while the courthouse burned down.
A new courthouse was built in 1874, but it soon became too small for the growing county business. In 1894, 1895, and 1896 additions and improvements were made to the building. In 1922, this courthouse burned to the ground.
The present courthouse cost $299,000 and is built of gray Bedford stone. The main entrance was constructed of solid bronze. It was completed in 1923. The pagoda that once served as a bandstand on the courthouse lawn was torn down in 1966.