An individual can represent themselves in their own personal legal action; this is called appearing pro se. A non-lawyer who is an officer or employee of a business entity is authorized to represent the business entity in small claims court only (Iowa Code section 631.14). Also, in a very limited number of agency actions and federal matters, non-Iowa lawyers may be able to represent themselves or Iowa citizens. However they may not hold themselves out as attorneys unless they have been admitted to practice in Iowa. Moreover, individuals who have previously been licensed in Iowa should be very careful about engaging in these actions, because the allowable tasks for a lay person and formerly licensed attorney can differ greatly.